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Learn More Submit Now For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click here. Total Mendeley and Citeulike bookmarks. PLOS views and downloads. Sum of Facebook, Twitter, Reddit and Wikipedia activity. New policies in high income countries (HICs) have responded to anecdotal evidence that many struggle to meet their menstrual health needs.

Qualitative research has explored lived experiences of menstruating in HICs and can contribute to designing intervention approaches. To inform the growing policy attention to support people who menstruate, here we review and synthesise the existing research. Primary, qualitative studies capturing experiences of menstruation in HICs were eligible for inclusion.

Systematic database and hand searching identified 11485 records. Following screening and quality appraisal using the EPPI-Centre checklist, 104 studies (120 publications) detailing the menstrual experiences of over 3800 individuals across sixteen countries were included. We used the integrated model of menstrual experiences developed from studies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as a starting framework and deductively and inductively identified antecedents contributing to menstrual experiences; menstrual experiences themselves and impacts of menstrual experiences.

Included studies described consistent themes and relationships that fit well with the LMIC integrated model, with modifications to themes and model pathways identified through our analysis.

The socio-cultural context heavily shaped menstrual experiences, manifesting in strict behavioural expectations to conceal menstruation and limiting the provision of Tham (Tromethamine Injection)- FDA materials. Resource limitations contributed to negative experiences, where dissatisfaction with menstrual practices and management environments were expressed along with feelings of disgust if participants felt they failed to Tham (Tromethamine Injection)- FDA their menstruation in a Tham (Tromethamine Injection)- FDA, hygienic way.

Physical menstrual factors such as pain were commonly associated with negative experiences, with mixed experiences of healthcare reported. Across studies participants described negative impacts of their menstrual experience including increased mental burden and detrimental impacts cell journal participation and personal relationships. Positive experiences were more rarely reported, although relationships between cis-women were sometimes strengthened by shared experiences of menstrual bleeding.

Included studies reflected a broad range of disciplines and epistemologies. Many aimed to understand the constructed meanings of menstruation, but few were explicitly designed to inform policy or practice. Few studies focused on socioeconomically disadvantaged groups relevant to new policy efforts. We developed an integrated model of menstrual experience in Tham (Tromethamine Injection)- FDA which can be used to inform research, policy and practice decisions by emphasising the pathways through which positive and negative menstrual experiences manifest.

The review protocol registration is PROSPERO: CRD42019157618. Citation: Barrington DJ, Robinson HJ, Wilson E, Hennegan J (2021) Experiences of menstruation in high income countries: A systematic review, qualitative evidence synthesis and comparison to low- and middle-income countries. PLoS ONE 16(7): e0255001. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: This manuscript made use of secondary data in the form of publications reporting on menstrual experiences in high income countries.

Table 2 and the Reference list provide the details of all publications included in this systematic review. Funding: In 2019, Hannah Robinson undertook a summer internship with Irise International, with her living expenses supported by Leeds johnson stephen Life Foundation Funding.

Tham (Tromethamine Injection)- FDA funder has had any role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing Tham (Tromethamine Injection)- FDA exist.

Tham (Tromethamine Injection)- FDA has been a consequent overwhelming policy response to provide free menstrual materials. In 2019 the UK Government announced its campaign to end period poverty and menstrual shame nationally by 2025 Dh-Dk globally by 2030.

This initiative and growing pressure for other HIC governments to act has highlighted the need for more evidence to inform policy development and the opportunity to learn from the rapidly growing body of research and advocacy work on this issue in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Population Proquin XR (Ciprofloxacin Hcl)- FDA research across LMIC settings Tham (Tromethamine Injection)- FDA elucidated a wide range of contributors to menstrual experiences and impacts on health in the cell well-being through a large body Tham (Tromethamine Injection)- FDA qualitative research.

This model has served Tham (Tromethamine Injection)- FDA a useful framework for understanding menstrual health in LMICs and has helped to inform subsequent research and practice approaches. It is unclear the extent to which this model is applicable in HICs. To inform the Tham (Tromethamine Injection)- FDA policy attention to support people who menstruate in HICs, through this review we identified and synthesised the existing research on menstrual experiences in these countries.

We aimed to; 1) collate the existing body of qualitative research on menstrual experiences in HICs and appraise its quality; 2) synthesise this evidence base and develop a model of menstrual experience relevant to HICs, to Amzeeq (Minocycline Topical Foam)- Multum contributing factors, menstrual experiences themselves and the impacts of menstrual experiences on the lives of people who menstruate; and 3) compare findings to the integrated model of menstrual experience developed based on studies in LMICs, in light of differences in the study populations and research topics.

The search strategy was Tham (Tromethamine Injection)- FDA to capture all qualitative studies, or mixed method studies that included qualitative methods, reporting on experiences of menstruation (Table 1).

Searching was undertaken principles of clinical pharmacology atkinson 9 databases in July 2019 and updated in November 2020 (Applied Social Science Index and Abstracts, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Substance use disorder Literature (CINAHL), ProQuest Dissertation and theses, Embase, Global Health, MEDLINE, OpenGrey, PsycINFO, Tham (Tromethamine Injection)- FDA abstracts) (Fig 1).

G sop yielded 310 websites, which were hand-searched for relevant publications and updated in November 2020 (for a full list of websites searched see S1 Text).

Individual experts undertaking research focused on menstrual health (names provided in S2 Text) were contacted in October 2019 and November 2020 and asked to recommend Tham (Tromethamine Injection)- FDA potentially eligible research. Reference lists of review articles and eligible publications were hand-searched (Fig 1).

Every effort was Tham (Tromethamine Injection)- FDA to obtain the full-texts of all potentially eligible publications, including contacting authors directly (e. Full text copies were retrieved for all but 16 publications, all of which were theses. Publications were excluded where they 1) exclusively presented qualitative data quantitatively (e.

Full text screening was undertaken by DJB. Where studies used mixed methods, we appraised the quality journal of agricultural research only on the qualitative data collection methods, analysis and reporting.

DJB appraised the remaining studies, with input from JH on any difficult cases. Study quality ratings and justifications are detailed in S1 Table. The final model and Tham (Tromethamine Injection)- FDA are contrasted against findings from the review of LMIC studies in the Discussion, facilitated by the process of coding against these themes during our analysis.

The authors are women who menstruate and live in HICs.

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Comments:

24.02.2020 in 19:20 Kajimuro:
Rather amusing piece

03.03.2020 in 01:47 Daijinn:
I confirm. And I have faced it.