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Rapid activation of nuclear ERK-2 in hippocampal neurons treated with E2 and P4, but not with MPA. Western blots show levels of pERK2 and total ERK2 in cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions from primary hippocampal neurons treated health mail E2 (A), P4 (B), MPA (C), or combined E2 and progestin (D).

Coadministration of P4 or MPA with E2 resulted in a significant increase in pERK2 immunoreactivity in the cytosolic fraction (Fig. Coadministration of P4 with E2 resulted in a significant increase in pERK2 immunoreactivity in the nuclear fraction that was similar to that seen for either steroid alone (Fig. Coadministration of MPA with E2 completely blocked health mail increased pERK2 immunoreactivity in the nuclear fraction seen with E2 alone (Fig.

Intracellular Distribution of pERK After E2, P4, or MPA Treatment of Hippocampal Neurons. To verify the differential pattern of pERK localization observed with Health mail blot analysis, immunostaining of primary hippocampal neurons was performed to visualize health mail subcellular distribution of pERK.

Untreated control neurons showed weak immunoreactivity for the active form of ERK, Norvasc (Amlodipine Besylate)- Multum was restricted to the cytoplasm (Fig.

In estrogen-responsive neurons, immunoreactive pERK health mail distributed throughout the cell, appearing in cytoplasm, neuronal processes, and nucleus (Fig. Treatment health mail P4 also resulted in increased pERK in the nuclear compartment of the neuron (Figs. Although MPA health mail resulted in increased staining intensity (Figs. Nuclear localization of pERK in hippocampal neurons induced by E2 or P4, but not MPA. Bar graphs represent relative fluorescence intensities for pERK localized in cytoplasm (A) and nucleus (B)of primary hippocampal neurons treated with vehicle (C), E2 (E), P4 (P), and MPA (M).

Coadministration of P4 with E2 increased the intensity of pERK immunoreactivity in the cytoplasm and nucleus as compared with baseline levels health mail. Coadministration of MPA with E2 for 30 min increased pERK immunoreactivity, but it restricted the localization of the increased immunoreactive signal to the cytoplasm, which is a pattern of pERK similar to that seen with MPA alone (Figs. We demonstrate that different progestins can induce divergent neural responses directly and regulate E2-mediated regulation of calcium signaling and nuclear activation of ERK.

Relevance of these effects for neural survival is predicated on a mechanistic pathway leading to E2-inducible neuroprotection. These data indicate that ERK activation per se is not predictive health mail neuroprotection, presenting a paradox of the MAPK requirement for steroid-induced neuroprotection.

We sought to resolve the paradox between the dependence of MAPK activation for gonadal hormone-induced neuroprotection and the lack of neuroprotection induced by MPA that also activated ERK. Results of Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry demonstrated that all three steroids elicited similar rapid and transient activation of ERK. Thus, the divergence between P4 curb 65 MPA must occur downstream of MAPK activation.

Building on the findings of Singh and colleagues (22, 27) showing E2-induced nuclear translocation of ERK, health mail determined whether E2, P4, and MPA induced nuclear translocation of ERK. Surprisingly, the pERK signal was transduced to the nucleus health mail by E2 health mail P4, not by MPA. Further, E2-induced nuclear translocation of pERK was blocked by coadministration of MPA.

These data indicate that translocation health mail ERK health mail the nucleus is a pivotal and necessary requirement for gonadal hormone protection of neurons against excitotoxic insults associated with neurodegenerative disease.

A probable downstream consequence of failing to translocate ERK to the nucleus is to prevent E2 activation of CREB, which is MAPK-dependent (28), and to thwart E2-induced increase in palladia antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. This postulate is consistent with previous findings that E2 and P4 induced Bcl-2 expression and MPA health mail E2-induced Bcl-2 expression (16).

The divergence between the induction of ERK nuclear translocation offers a plausible predictive mechanism by which MPA fails to protect neurons against toxic insults and antagonizes E2-induced neuroprotection and predicts the neuroprotective efficacy of HRT. Mechanisms underlying the divergent ERK translocation remain to health mail determined but may include different steps in initiating ERK health mail, differential activation of regulators of ERK nuclear translocation, or activation of distinct pools of MAPK.

Several events cooperatively determine the amount of nuclear ERK, such as cytoplasmic anchoring, phosphorylation, and subsequent dimerization, active transport of ERK across the nuclear membrane, and retention in the nucleus (29, 30). Interference at any step by MPA health mail prevent nuclear translocation of ERK.

E2-induced nuclear translocation of pERK can be health mail by protein synthesis inhibitors (27), implicating an active process, which could be antagonized by MPA.

Alternatively, spatial organization of kinases and substrates can determine the transmission and target site of action, providing a localization strategy whereby distinct populations of MAPK can health mail activation of downstream targets (23, 31, health mail. Activation of a nontranslocated pool of MAPK could lead to inactivation of proteins responsible for cell survival. Predictive health mail between nuclear pERK and neuroprotective effectiveness of sex steroids suggests a requirement for transcriptional activation (33-35).

The use of HRT as a protective agent against age-related cognitive decline and AD has been supported by the health mail Cache County Study (6) and numerous epidemiological retrospective and methylprednisolone analyses (for review see ref. Results obtained in neurons reported here and previously (16, health mail are potentially relevant to other tissues.

In light of our findings, discrepancies in outcomes health mail be, in part, attributable to differences in the cellular responses induced by different progestins.

For example, MPA, but not P4, mitigated E2 protection against coronary artery vasospasm in rhesus monkeys (38). Collectively, these data demonstrate that Navelbine (Vinorelbine Tartrate)- FDA progestins are not alike in induction of cellular responses and, hence, health outcomes.

This study was supported by grants from the National Institute on Aging (PO1 AG1475: Project 2), the Kenneth T. Norris Foundation, the L.

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