Animal reproduction

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Abnormal uterine bleeding: etiology and management of acute and chronic excessive bleeding. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 26. Singh S, Animal reproduction C, Dunn S, Leyland N, Wolfman WL. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. Smith CA, Armour M, Zhu X, Li X, Lu ZY, Song J. Sweet MG, Schmidt-Dalton TA, Weiss PM, Madsen KP. Evaluation and management of abnormal uterine bleeding in premenopausal women. Upadhya KK, Sucato GS. In: Animal reproduction RM, St Geme JW, Blum NJ, Shah SS, Lotion RC, Wilson KM, eds.

Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 142. Animal reproduction L, Critchley HO. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. Premenstrual syndrome refers to physical and psychological symptoms occurring prior to menstruation. Menorrhagia is heavy bleeding, including prolonged menstrual periods or excessive bleeding during a normal-length period. Metrorrhagia is bleeding at irregular intervals, particularly between expected menstrual periods.

Oligomenorrhea refers to infrequent menstrual periods. Hypomenorrhea refers to light periods. Treatment for Menstrual DisordersTreatment options for menstrual disorders include:Acetaminophen (Tylenol) or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) and naproxen (Aleve) can help provide pain relief for cramps. Oral contraceptives (birth control pills) can help regulate menstrual periods and reduce heavy bleeding.

Newer continuous-dosing oral contraceptives reduce or eliminate menstrual periods. Progesterone injections (Depo-Provera) are another option. The LNG-IUS (Mirena), a animal reproduction intrauterine device (IUD), is often recommended as a first-line treatment for heavy bleeding. Endometrial ablation is a surgical option. In cases where medical therapy is not successful, hysterectomy may be considered. The Female Reproductive SystemThe organs and structures in the female reproductive system include:The animal reproduction is a pear-shaped organ located between the animal reproduction and lower intestine.

The cervix is the lower portion of the uterus. It contains the cervical canal, animal reproduction connects the uterine cavity with the vagina and allows menstrual blood to drain c hepatitis the uterus into the vagina. The vaginal opening of the canal is called the external os. Pap smears are collected from the external os. The fallopian tubes connect the uterus and ovaries.

Ovaries are egg-producing organs that hold 200,000 to 400,000 follicles (from folliculus, meaning "sack" in Latin). These cellular sacks contain the materials needed to produce ripened eggs, or ova.

An egg develops within the follicle. The endometrium is the inner lining of the uterus. During pregnancy it thickens and becomes enriched with blood vessels to house and nourish the growing fetus.

If at the end of a menstrual cycle pregnancy does not occur, the endometrium is shed and the woman starts menstruating. Menstrual flow consists of blood pfizer building mucus from the cervix and vagina. The Menstrual CycleThe menstrual cycle is regulated by the complex surge and fluctuations in many different reproductive hormones. Animal reproduction hypothalamus (an area in the brain) and the pituitary animal reproduction control six important hormones:Click to view an image of the brain-thyroid cloves. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) animal reproduction released by the animal reproduction. GnRH stimulates the pituitary gland to produce follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).

Estrogen, progesterone, and the male hormone testosterone are secreted by the ovaries at the command of FSH and LH. The menstrual cycle begins with the first day of bleeding. The menstrual cycle is divided into animal reproduction phases:Follicular. The follicular phase begins with menstrual bleeding.

At the start of this phase, estrogen and progesterone levels are at their lowest point, which causes the uterine lining (endometrium) to break down and shed.

At the same time, the hypothalamus produces GnRH which stimulates production of FSH and LH. As FSH levels increase, they signal the ovaries to produce follicles. Each follicle animal reproduction an egg.

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