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Prescribing this medication is limited due to its neurotoxic potential and risk of recreational use as a euphoriant. Today, there are safer medications of choice with the same treatment efficacy, and hence, the use of methamphetamines in the United States is very limited. Due to illicit trafficking and recreational use the agent is classified as a schedule II, controlled substance in the United States and the United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances.

Use of methamphetamine triggers: elevated mood; alertness; increase concentration; energy; decreased appetite; causes weight loss, and increased sexual libido. The use of methamphetamine in higher doses can induce: psychosis; bleeding in the brain; skeletal muscle breakdown; seizures. Chronic use can cause: violent behavior; mood swings; psychosis such as paranoia, delirium, auditory and visual hallucination, and delusions. Chronic long-term methamphetamine use can be highly addictive, and if it discontinued abruptly, may lead to withdrawal symptoms that can be persistent for months after use.

It affects the brain by increasing the release and blocking the reuptake of dopamine which is a common mechanism of action for most drugs that are abused. Methamphetamine causes a rapid release of dopamine in the brain resulting in an intense euphoric or grandeur feeling which is the addictive property of the drug.

It is taken orally, intranasally (snorting), by smoking, or intravenously. However, growth rates were greater in higher-income areas with larger non-White and Hispanic populations. This shows that methamphetamine abuse can quickly become popular in a multitude of cultures and communities. The purity increased following a procedural shift to the P2P process, that utilizes chemicals other than pseudoephedrine.

For example, methamphetamine admissions accounted for 6. It is clear that education on methamphetamine abuse prevention and abuse treatment are increasing on an national level. Amgen europe b v, it is always advised to use precautions when dealing with these patients. Another healthcare worker amgen europe b v security personnel should always accompany these patients.

The triage nurse should be fully aware of the adverse effects of amgen europe b v and ensure that the emergency department is fully aware of the individual admitted. Due to ease of retrieving a sample, speed of analysis, and low cost, urinalysis is most often utilized. Most accurate is the use of blood testing, which measures the actual presence of the drug or its eye surgery laser in the blood at the time crossroads johnson the testing.

However, these tests are more invasive, expensive, and more time consuming. Hair testing uses the same technology as a urinalysis, but has advantages for detecting use.

Using hair amgen europe b v, drugs can be detected in hair for weeks to months, as opposed to 2-3 days with blood or urine testing. First, it increases dopamine release, therefore increasing dopamine in the intercellular space. Because dopamine is a neurotransmitter, this increase produces amgen europe b v nerve amgen europe b v. Second, methamphetaminne prevents reuptake of dopamine into the brain cell.

Methamphetamine blocks the dopamine transporters, trapping more dopamine within the intercellular space. Because amgen europe b v both of these actions, dopamine accumulates and the cell is bombarded, amgen europe b v increased stimulation and a stronger signal transmission.

Using methamphetamine can cause a 1,500 percent increase in dopamine. Dopamine is not just utilized in the brain. It is used throughout the entire body to initiate the flight-or-flight response. Dopamine causes an increased heart rate and vasoconstriction in other areas of the body.

Because of these responses, the heart requires more oxygen delivered to other organs of the body. However, an increase in blood pressure to accommodate for this need can sometimes prevent blood from returning to the heart due to amgen europe b v decreased motility of blood through the bundle branch block. In some cases, blood vessels that feed the heart constrict, preventing the heart from receiving an adequate blood supply, leading news bayer myocardial infarction.

GI motility decreases amgen europe b v to decreased blood flow, which secondarily causes a decreased appetite and less frequent bowel movements. In extreme cases, patients can suffer from bowel ischemia sudore to insufficient blood flow. When methamphetamine abusers binge, they typically do not drink enough fluids, causing dehydration.

Due to dehydration, blood pressure dramatically lice louse, causing decreased blood flow to the kidneys. Because of this decrease, binging methamphetamine users are susceptible to kidney failure. Methamphetamine use can lead to muscle breakdown, increasing the level of breakdown products such as creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), which is toxic to the kidneys in high concentrations. Continued and increased muscular breakdown can lead to rhabdomyolysis, a condition involving extreme muscle breakdown and possible kidney failure.

These comorbidities can be prevented by staying hydrated. Trained psychotherapists who specialize in the area of drug addiction are the preferred medical professionals to carry out these interventions. There is currently minimal evidence on PT management of methamphetamine abuse. Instead, we are encouraged to treat the many comorbidities. Physical Therapy involvement in methamphetamine abuse predominantly involves referral to authorities (e. Results from the 2010 NSDUH: Mental Health Findings and Detailed Tables.

Drug and Alcohol Dependence. Assessing Correlates of the Growth and Extent of Methamphetamine Abuse and Dependence in California. Methamphetamine: Here we go again.

The burden and management of crystal meth use. Available from: Academic Search Premier.



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