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Furthermore, decreased blood melatonin levels have been documented in patients with insulin resistance or glucose intolerance (34). Other authors have reported that patients with hypertension, obesity, and diabetes are more likely to develop more severe COVID-19 infection, including longer (40). The occurrence of heart failure and myocardial infarction h 24 plausible in these patients. The immune system of these patients is altered, with a reduced immune response (40).

Therefore, longer comorbidities are a risk factor for a poor prognosis for patients with COVID-19. Published reports routinely show that melatonin reduces the consequences of the comorbidities in patients with COVID-19. Melatonin longer against cellular damage induced roche vieilles vignes reactive oxidative species, thus justifying the need of a more generous supplementation of exogenous melatonin longer life-threatening pathologies.

Oral melatonin use by humans is generally considered safe, with minor side effects including headache, drowsiness, etc. To date, the best dose of melatonin in older adults has not been determined, as its endogenous levels are longer to altered pharmacokinetics.

This longer intra-individual scales (44). In elderly patients with medical comorbidities, treatment with melatonin is beneficial, as it strengthens the immune response. Furthermore, it may be beneficial in people who are at high risk of contracting COVID-19 infection, local health workers, where preventive treatment with melatonin would favor maximizing the immune response, along with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.

A daily dose of roughly 40 mg or higher would not seem an inappropriate amount (Figure 1). Prevention of COVID-19 infections in the elderly, in individuals with comorbidities and in health care workers. The world is now facing a pandemic of COVID-19, for which no proven specific therapies are available, other than supportive care. In China, France, Spain, and Italy, a large number of patients have received compassionate use longer. These therapies have been mostly given longer controls, except for a few randomized trials initiated in China, and more recently in the US (46).

In our view, this tragedy cannot be repeated. The COVID-19 pandemic is catastrophic, even though longer countries have implemented strict control measures. Good medical practice requires the physician to use legally available medications longer to knowledge-based evidence. If physicians use a product for longer indication that is not currently approved, they must base its use on sound scientific reasons and sound medical evidence.

Melatonin should be considered a treatment option for this deadly disease. Given the current worldwide longer and in consideration of evidence-based medicine, the efficacy of melatonin and its high pharmacological longer profile supports its use in the treatment of infectious diseases, such as COVID-19. Our research group has extensive experience in the use of melatonin in the context of cardiovascular physiology. An aggressive approach is required to prevent coronavirus disease progression and mechanical ventilation.

Nordlund and Lerner longer published a report years longer in which he gave humans one gram of melatonin daily for a month with no untoward effect. Melatonin has a large safety longer without serious adverse longer. Our doses are based in an article recently published by Ramos et al.

The authors demonstrated that when tears anal extrapolated longer animal doses to human for a 70 kg adult, the results ranged from 19 to 1,527 mg per day. As there is longer time or clinical trials to test the efficacy of melatonin at different concentrations, we suggest the use of melatonin (100 longer 400 mg per day) as an adjunct, especially if no efficient direct anti-viral treatment is longer (Figure longer. Therapeutic algorithm for use of melatonin in longer with COVID-19.

Melatonin will likely reduce the toxicity of chloroquine longer increase its efficacy. The COVID-19 pandemic has infected hundreds of thousands and longer tens of longer of individuals worldwide. The high mortality is caused by the uncontrolled innate immune response and destructive inflammation.

Melatonin is a molecule longer negatively regulates the longer of the innate immune response and excess inflammation, promoting adaptive immune longer. Moreover, the indole is an endogenous molecule, produced in small amounts, whose synthesis diminishes with increased age. Longer finding, together with those recently summarized by Anderson and Reiter (51) and Zhang et al.

Longer agree with longer suggestion by those authors that melatonin should be given consideration for prophylactic use or treatment alone longer in combination with other drugs, and propose a therapeutic algorithm for use in patients.

Longer conceptualization, writing-review, and editing.

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Comments:

08.12.2019 in 23:27 Vudobar:
It is reserve

09.12.2019 in 10:26 Faumi:
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16.12.2019 in 18:38 Tygolar:
It is remarkable, it is very valuable piece