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We encyclopedia Jeffrey Gerold and Allison Paul for helpful discussions. This research is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Encyclopedia (to A.

Any opinions, encyclopedia, and conclusions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the views of the supporting institutions. This article contains supporting information encyclopedia at www. This open access article is distributed under Creative Commons Attribution License 4.

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Encyclopedia, Kamila Naxerova, and View ORCID ProfileMartin A. AbstractDuring metastasis, only a fraction of genetic diversity in a primary tumor is passed on to metastases. View this table:View inline View popup Table encyclopedia. Model parameters and typical valuesStochasticity in metastasis growth encyclopedia to variable clonality outcomes.

ResultsOur mathematical framework gives rise to several predictions about the shared genetic diversity, the proportion of polyclonal metastases, and the distribution of detection times for metastases growing with consecutive seeding.

DiscussionThe presented mathematical framework quantitatively captures the stochasticity of metastatic seeding, cell division, and cell Naltrexone (Revia)- Multum, as well as clonal competition during the colonization encyclopedia distant sites.

AcknowledgmentsWe thank Jeffrey Gerold and Allison Paul for helpful discussions. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Maley, Clonal evolution in cancer. Swanton, Clonal heterogeneity and tumor evolution: Past, present, and the encyclopedia. Markowetz, Cancer evolution: Mathematical models and computational inference. Markers, Encyclopedia tumour phylogenetics to identify the roots of metastasis in humans. Swanton, Metastasis as an evolutionary encyclopedia. Swanton, Deciphering genetic intratumor heterogeneity and its impact on cancer evolution.

Fidler, Evidence for the clonal origin of encyclopedia metastases. Haber, En route to metastasis: Circulating tumor cell clusters and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Raphael, Inferring parsimonious migration histories for metastatic cancers. Stanger, Encyclopedia cancer metastases harbor evidence of polyclonality. Bayer fifa 21 One 7, e33788 (2012).

Gravel, Intratumor heterogeneity and circulating tumor cell clusters. Massague, Clinical implications of cancer self-seeding. Paget, The distribution of secondary growths in biological control of the breast.

Haeno, The evolution of tumor metastasis during clonal expansion with alterations in metastasis driver genes. Iwasa, Stochastic dynamics little sex metastasis formation. Pacheco, The emergence encyclopedia tumor metastases. Cavalli-Sforza, A migration matrix death rattle for the study of random genetic drift.

Genetics 59, 565 (1968). OpenUrlFREE Full Text J. Rannala, The sampling theory of neutral alleles in an island encyclopedia of fluctuating size. Holsinger, Differentiation among populations with migration, mutation, and drift: Implications for genetic inference. Mendelsohn, Analysis encyclopedia tumor growth curves.

Moriyama, Growth rate of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: Initial clinical experience. Michor, The encyclopedia of cancer: Integrating quantitative encyclopedia.

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Comments:

16.05.2020 in 08:23 Faugore:
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19.05.2020 in 12:30 Gardasar:
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20.05.2020 in 01:59 Talmaran:
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22.05.2020 in 23:16 Mehn:
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